With regard to human cloning or artificial human reproduction - and contrary to the opinions of Sunni scholars - Shiite thinkers have not held a unified position. After Having surveyed a number of Shiite fatwas and analyses on the subject, this essay will classify them into four groups. The first group states that we are granted absolute permission to engage in human cloning; while the second group believes that there is limited permission; the third group argues that cloning as such is primarily permitted but because of its consequences and secondary grounds it is prohibited and unlawful; and the fourth group is of the view that cloning as such and by itself is prohibited and unlawful. In what fallows, the author has examined these four views, ending in support of the permission theory.
In our modern society, we usually consume industrial meat as a basic part of our eating regime, believing that it is necessary for our health. But this article tries to show that industrial meat-eating, regardless of health issues, is unethical. The writer uses two moral arguments to prove his claim. The first one is the argument from evil treatment of animals in the factory farming, and the second one is the argument from destroying the environment. The factory farmers to produce more industrial meat in low price, use cruel methods that are ethically unacceptable. Furthermore, factory farming has huge negative impacts on the environment. So, to live responsibly and ethically, the writer argues, we have to stop industrial meat-eating and try to start a healthier and more ethically diet by being totally vegetarian or at least consuming the meat of free-range animals.
Keywords: cruelty to animals, factory farming, industrial meat, vegetarianism, consumption ethics, protecting the environment.
This paper (in Farsi) is published in: Ethical Research (Quarterly Academic Journal of University of Qom), Vol.3, No.9,10, Autumn,Winter 2012.
Analyzing a Hadith on Four Cardinal Virtues
In this paper, the writer tries to analyze a hadith (i.e. tradition) on the virtues which is attributed to Imam Ali (p.b.u.h). According to this hadith, the cardinal virtues are: wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice. Tracing this tradition the author wants to show that this tradition is a brief account of Greek virtue ethics rather than Islamic ethics, and also is a translation of Socratic and Platonic thoughts on virtues. He first analyses the meaning of arête (virtue) in Greek culture, and the importance of those above mentioned four virtues. Then he describes the transmission of these virtues into Islamic culture and their acceptance by some Muslim ethicists. Finally he compares these virtues with the main virtues introduced and emphasized by the Holy Quran and argues that this tradition is, probably, defective and apocryphal one.
Key words: Islamic ethics, Islamic virtues, virtue ethics, apocryphal tradition, Islamic moral philosophy.
This paper is published in: Ulum-Hadith, no. 43, Summer 2007.
Seyyed Hassan Eslami Ardakani, URD, Qom
Academic circles have believed that science and ethics cannot be separated, so the students are taught to learn research ethics and apply the rules of ethical conduct in their term papers and theses or dissertations. From this point of view, the writer of this paper conducted a research on the research books that are written in Persian, to discover the amount of presence of research ethics in these books and the coverage of the issues facing the students in the process of their research. The result shows that the positivistic approach concerning the distinction between facts and value is still dominant in most of these educational books, and they have not freed themselves from this positivistic heritage. In the end, the writer has proposed a solution for overcoming this ethical and educational problem.
Persian Research ethics, Academic Research, the fact/value problem in research books.
published in Metodology of Sicial Science and Humanities, 2012, Issue 69