بار اول که فیلم «مه» (The Mist) ساخته فرانک دارابونت را از تلویزیون دیدم، به کارگردان بیراه گفتم که چرا فیلم خود را با این پیام ضد اخلاقی پایان داده است. بار دوم که همین فیلم را به زبان اصلی دیدم، یک مشت به خودم دری وری گفتم که چرا به اعتماد تلویزیون درباره آن کارگردان از همه جا بیخبر این گونه داوری کرده بودم. بار سوم که همین فیلم را دوباره از سیما دیدم، مانده بودم به کی بد و بیراه بگویم.
With regard to human cloning or artificial human reproduction - and contrary to the opinions of Sunni scholars - Shiite thinkers have not held a unified position. After Having surveyed a number of Shiite fatwas and analyses on the subject, this essay will classify them into four groups. The first group states that we are granted absolute permission to engage in human cloning; while the second group believes that there is limited permission; the third group argues that cloning as such is primarily permitted but because of its consequences and secondary grounds it is prohibited and unlawful; and the fourth group is of the view that cloning as such and by itself is prohibited and unlawful. In what fallows, the author has examined these four views, ending in support of the permission theory.
In our modern society, we usually consume industrial meat as a basic part of our eating regime, believing that it is necessary for our health. But this article tries to show that industrial meat-eating, regardless of health issues, is unethical. The writer uses two moral arguments to prove his claim. The first one is the argument from evil treatment of animals in the factory farming, and the second one is the argument from destroying the environment. The factory farmers to produce more industrial meat in low price, use cruel methods that are ethically unacceptable. Furthermore, factory farming has huge negative impacts on the environment. So, to live responsibly and ethically, the writer argues, we have to stop industrial meat-eating and try to start a healthier and more ethically diet by being totally vegetarian or at least consuming the meat of free-range animals.
Keywords: cruelty to animals, factory farming, industrial meat, vegetarianism, consumption ethics, protecting the environment.
This paper (in Farsi) is published in: Ethical Research (Quarterly Academic Journal of University of Qom), Vol.3, No.9,10, Autumn,Winter 2012.